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Superior Plumbing in Phoenix

Learn About Valves & Faucets

Ground-key valves Superior Plumbing in Phoenix

The principal advantages of this type of valve include the clear and unobstructed waterway offered when the valve is opened, the absence of soft packing to wear out, its suitability for hot water, and the fact that it can be completely and quickly opened by a one-quarter turn of the handle.

There are two principal objections to the valve: one arises from the possible water hammer which may result from the too quick manipulation of the valve; and the other is that when the key becomes badly worn the valve may leak or jam and it is difficult to make repairs. Such valves are used almost exclusively as corporation or curb cocks and are quite popular on faucets for kitchen sinks.

Check valves

Check valves are used to prevent a backward or reverse flow through a pipe line. They may be installed on the discharge end of a pump to prevent back flow through the pump when it is stopped, or a back-water valve may be installed on a house drain or house sewer to prevent the back flow of sewage into a building, or in many other situations.

In operation a back-water valve for a drainage pipe, the reversal of flow through the valve will force the closing disc into place thus cutting off the flow. In the installation of the check valve care should be taken that it is placed in the correct position and that a valve designed for a horizontal pipe is not placed on a vertical pipe or a vertical valve is not placed on a horizontal pipe, etc. Check valves are available for all positions.

Balanced valves

A balanced valve, is used on pipe lines operating under such a high pressure that the opening of a gate valve or the closing of a globe valve against the pressure would be difficult. Balanced valves are also used on automatic-control devices such as filter rate controllers, engine governors, water-closet tanks, pressure regulators, etc. The valve has an inlet and an outlet end and it must always be placed with its inlet up stream. The pressure is then exerted equally against both discs and to move the discs it is necessary to overcome only the friction of the valve parts and to move the weight of the mechanism.

Pressure regulators

Pressure regulators may be used on water-supply lines where the supply pressure is greater than that desired in the plumbing system. They should be used in all cases where the pressure may exceed 80 to 90 lb. per square inch for long periods of time. Such a condition often arises in tall buildings and occasionally in hilly cities. Pressure regulators can be made to give any difference of pressure desired but the regulators available on the market are commonly limited to a minimum of 14 lb. per square inch for a pressure of 40 lb. Per square inch and a minimum of 40 lb. per square inch for a pressure of 200 lb. per square inch. Between these limits almost any desired pressure can be obtained.

The desired low pressure is fixed by turning the nut, thus opening or closing the balanced valve which is supported on the flexible disc and the spring. In operation, if the pressure below the valve tends to increase beyond the fixed amount the pressure in the chamber is increased forcing the disc up and partially closing the valve, thus reducing the pressure below the valve. If the pressure below the regulator becomes too low the pressure on the flexible disc is relieved and the spring opens the balanced valve in the regulator.

Another type of regulator is a less expensive type than the one described above but it is suitable only for the smaller sizes of pipe. It operates as follows: The high pressure from the inlet side operates against the disc (the lower disc) to hold the valve open. The low pressure on the outlet side of the valve operates against the disc (the upper disc) which is larger in area than the other disc. The two pressures, with the aid of the spring, just balance each other to hold the valve open in the correct position. Desired differences in pressure are obtained by adjusting the spring by turning the screw.

Wherever pressure-reducing valves are installed on the service pipe of a building a by-pass should be provided for use when the valve is out of order. A pressure-relief valve should also be used to prevent the generation of excessive pressures in the plumbing system.

Pressure-relief or safety valves

Pressure-relief or safety valves are used to prevent dangerously high pressures in plumbing systems, and for many other purposes. They are essential on hot-water supply systems where check valves are used to prevent the back flow of hot water and provision is not made for the expansion of the water or the possible generation of steam. The disc is held in place by an adjustable connection in the spring. When the pressure becomes too high, the disc is forced off its seat and the pressure in the tank or conduit is relieved. The valve should be designed with a free opening equal to or greater than the cross-sectional area of the pipe in which the pressure is to be relieved.

Air-relief valves

An air-relief valve are used on water-supply systems in which air may become entrained to such an extent as to become a nuisance. If used, the water-supply pipes should be laid out on such a slope that air will rise through the pipes to the valve which is placed at the highest point on the system. The valve operates as follows: When the valve is filled with water the float presses the valve shut and no more water can escape. A bubble of air, rising through the air-relief pipe, will enter the valve chamber and displace some of the water therein. The float will drop thus opening the valve to release the air. Water will immediately follow into the valve chamber raising the float and closing the valve again.

Float-controlled Valves

Float-controlled valves are in very common use in automatic apparatus used in plumbing installations. They are used principally on flush tanks, storage tanks, and in all places where it is desired to maintain a constant level of water in a reservoir. A common type of float-controlled valve used in a water-closet flush tank. Many other types and modifications are used, as there is not a complete plumbing installation in any building that does not contain a float-controlled valve.

Common pump valves

The most common type of valve used in the suction and discharge chambers of pumps acts as a check valve allowing the water to flow in one direction only. Pressure beneath the valve lifts the leather disc off of the valve seat uncovering the port and permitting the passage of water. On the release of the pressure beneath the valve the reverse tendency of the water, aided by the valve spring, forces the disc back on to the seat. A foot valve consists of a large number of small “common” valves placed in the bottom of the foot piece. Another type of foot valve consists of a single, hinged flap in the place of the many small valves.

Butterfly valves

A butterfly valve consists of a disc, somewhat like the damper in a stovepipe, which is shaped to fit the inside of the pipe as far as the disc will turn. When the valve is closed the disc fits against a ground faced seat, but unfortunately it is difficult to make and to maintain a tight fit for such a valve. Butterfly valves are used in automatic apparatus, in throttle valves, and as quick-closing valves.

Needle valves

Needle valves are used in the handling of gases or where it is desired to obtain a very fine adjustment of the opening of the port.

Four-way and three-way valves

Four way and three-way valves are used in special mechanisms where it is desired to divert the flow from one incoming channel to any one of two or three possible outlet channels, or where it is desired to connect an incoming and an outgoing channel immediately after a different pair of incoming and outgoing channels have been disconnected.

Pet cocks

The pet cock, air cock, or faucet, is used as a drain for pipe lines, valves or appurtenances; to test containers for the presence of liquid or gas under pressure behind the pet cock; for connecting pressure gages; and for other useful purposes. They are seldom threaded for pipe larger than /3/8 in.

Stop-and-waste valves

The stop-and-waste valve, is used on water-supply lines, and so operates that when the water supply is shut off the water remaining in the pipe, on the non-pressure side of the valve, will drain out through the waste which is opened when the pressure side of the valve is shut off. A stop-and-waste valve should be installed on the house end of all service pipes where the service pipe comes through the basement wall of the building, or if a meter is installed it should be placed close to the meter and on the street side thereof. This type of valve is essential to the protection of the water pipes against freezing when the heat and water are turned off in a building in cold weather.

Water-closet flush valves

Water closets may be flushed by admitting water directly to the bowl of the closet from the water-supply pipes of the plumbing system. In order to avoid the use of an excessive amount of water a valve should be used which will remain open just long enough to deliver the required amount of water and will then close automatically. It should be so designed that it cannot be held open for full flush.

Many types of water-closet flush valves are manufactured, each showing some difference from the others.

Superior Plumbing in Phoenix

Learn More About Plumbing

Installation of Plumbing Superior Plumbing in Phoenix

The installation of plumbing pipes, called the “roughing-in,” proceeds simultaneously with the erection of the building, since most of the pipes are concealed in the floors and walls thereof. The pipes must, therefore, be installed before the floors and walls are completed. Because of the necessity for correct installation the plumber must be able to read architectural drawings and to make sketches and sometimes drawings of his own to supplement the plans of the architect.

Usually the first step in the installation of plumbing is the connection of the service pipe with the water main, and the house sewer with the public sewer. The supports for the stacks are then placed and the stacks erected as the building rises. Water supply and drainage pipes are placed simultaneously, the branches following closely on the erection of riser pipes and stacks. All of the roughing-in should be completed before the walls are lathed or flooring laid. Fixtures, except built-in bathtubs and certain special fixtures, are installed after the completion of the flooring and plastering. Their installation is called the finishing, is among the last things done in the completion of a building.

The simplicity of Plumbing Systems Bathtub Plumbing

A plumbing system reduced to its simplest terms would consist of one supply pipe leading to a fixture and one drain pipe taking the waste water away from this fixture. As the number of fixtures is increased the branching of the supply and drainage pipes is increased. As the kinds of water to be supplied are increased the complication of the supply piping is increased. Most fixtures have at least two supply pipes, one with hot water, the other bringing cold water. In some buildings soft water, iced water, and other supply pipes may be installed. When each water-supply system is considered independently the piping arrangements can be more easily understood and appear more simple.

An increase in the number of fixtures increases the complication of the drainage pipes and frequently requires the installation of vent pipes. When the purpose of these supply, drainage, and vent pipes is understood and each system is considered independently of the others a plumbing system, like most other things which are understood, appears simple and easily comprehensible.

Water-supply pipes

plumbing example The water supply for a city home is ordinarily delivered through a pipe in the street. The pipe in the street is usually of cast iron, seldom less than 4 in. in diameter and usually larger. To this pipe, called the street main, is connected a galvanized-iron or lead pipe, called the service pipe. A valve, sometimes called the corporation cock, is placed close to the connection between the service pipe and the water main. Another valve is sometimes placed near the curb. This may be called the corporation cock or sometimes the curb cock.

The curb cock is used principally to turn water on and off without entering the building served. The service pipe continues through the basement wall of the building and usually terminates in a “stop-and-waste cock” near the basement wall and on the inside of the building. This “stop-and-waste cock” should be installed on the lowest point in the water supply piping in the building so that when the valve is closed all of the water in the supply pipes can be drained out.

Cold-water supply pipes. / Hot-water piping system.

A, street main; B, lead goose neck; C, curb of corporation valve; D, main or stop-and-waste valve; E, meter; F, sill cock or garden hose connection; G, hot-water or furnace coil, H, basement water closet; J, laundry trays; K, kitchen sink; L, bathtub; M, wash basin N, water closet.

The plumbing system within the building starts from this main valve or stop-and-waste cock. Figure shows a simple layout of the cold-water pressure pipes for a small dwelling house. A simple arrangement of hot-water supply pipes for the same building is shown also in the same figure.

Drainage and vent pipes Drain Cleaning

When water is supplied to a building, provision must be made to remove the waste water from the building. The pipes for this purpose are classified as drainage pipes. From many points of view their design and operation are the most difficult to understand because of the complications involved in the necessity for maintaining proper slopes for drainage and self-scouring velocities, proper pipe capacities, and proper sizes and arrangements of vent pipes to prevent the development of high air pressures in the plumbing pipes.

Water falling through vertical pipes and flowing through the horizontal drainage pipes will entrap, compress, and rarefy air. The air, in its attempts to escape from the vacuum or the pressure thus created may break the seals of traps unless adequate vent pipes have been installed. Vent pipes and drainage pipes are sometimes so closely related that they are sometimes classified together.

The sizes of vent pipes, their number, location, and other details have been determined for many years in the past as a result of the individual experience of different architects and plumbers, resulting in many differences of practice in various cities. Tests recently made at the U. S. Bureau of Standards,’ and at the University of Arizona have thrown much light on the question of venting and have made possible more intelligent design of the drainage and vent pipes of a plumbing system. In the small dwelling shown, it is possible to install all of the plumbing without vent pipes.

Your Plumber Plumbing

The advance in the scale of ideals with regard to plumbing has been so great that the design, installation, and maintenance of pipes and fixtures is no longer the work of the handy man, the lead worker, or the jack-of-all-trades. A plumber, to deserve the title and to receive the respect of his associates, must be trained in the art of his trade and the manipulation of his tools. He must have knowledge of the natural physical laws affecting the materials he uses and the installations he makes, legislation affecting plumbing, and business methods and procedure. In brief he must be a mechanic, a physicist, an architect, an engineer, a builder, and a business man.

The purpose of Plumbing

A plumbing system is installed in a dwelling or other building for the primary purpose of convenience and comfort. The supply pipes of the system bring a wholesome water supply and the drainage pipes carry off the used water. Sanitation and health as well as convenience and comfort, are served, and, because of the possible damages to health resulting from impure water and improper drainage, care and knowledge must be exercised in the installation of plumbing.

A wholesome water is supplied to most buildings by the municipality. The quality of the water is under the supervision of the local and state health authorities. The waste water is discharged into the common sewers where it is also cared for by governmental agencies. Where the public water supply is not wholesome or no public water supply is available or where no common sewers are available, private filtration of water and attention to proper sewage disposal become necessary and the plumber is called upon for information, equipment, and service in these matters.

The householder at home and the citizen in the public building are accustomed to and demand types of plumbing fixtures and installations unknown a generation ago. The condition of plumbing even in so short a time ago as the span of one human life would not be tolerated today; its installation would be illegal. In spite of the many outstanding advantages of plumbing installations some disadvantages sometimes accompany the installation of pipes in a building.

The presence of pipes in a building present two dangers: one from the bursting of pipes under pressure which may destroy property, and the other, more subtle but none the less real, the escape of gases or sewage from the drainage pipes, which is dangerous to life and health. With care in design and maintenance both of these objections to the presence of plumbing in a building can be overcome.

Objections to Plumbing Plumbing Main Line

The danger from bursting pipes can be minimized by the use of proper materials, proper design, and good workmanship in installation. It is a real danger to property and must be carefully guarded against. The danger to health from sewer gas resulted in a bitter controversy over its reality.. Cases are cited of men who have worked in sewers for long periods of time without deleterious effect upon their health, and cases are cited of the asphyxiation of men entering a manhole. The situation might be summed up in the statement that there are no scientific data to prove or disprove the so-called dangers from “sewer gas,” but in view of the uncertainty of the matter and the extreme danger which may result from admitting such gases to our homes, the greatest care should be exercised in excluding these gases. Not only may the odours be dangerous but the thought of their presence is repugnant and unpleasant and hence they must be excluded.

Purpose of traps

Odours, insects, and vermin from the sewer are prevented from passing into a building through the plumbing pipes by means of traps which are filled with water. It follows, therefore, that every opening from a building into a plumbing system which is connected to a sewer pipe should be trapped in such a manner as to maintain a permanent seal.

The maintenance of the seal of the trap offers difficulties which add materially to the cost of plumbing installations. The seal in a trap may be destroyed by evaporation, by blowing or sucking out the water as a result of the variations in pressure in the plumbing system, or the seal may be lost when water, discharging through the trap at A, high velocity, does not fall back sufficiently to maintain a seal in the trap.

Purpose of venting Sewer Repair

The purpose of a vent pipe is to conduct air, at atmospheric pressure, to the lower leg of a trap, i.e. the portion of the trap nearest the sewer. This connection to the outer air so reduces the effects of high or low pressures in the plumbing system as to aid in maintaining the seal of the trap.

No certain and safe method has been devised to prevent the evaporation, in time, of water from any trap. The evaporation is so slow compared with the frequency of the use of fixtures in occupied premises that the seal is renewed with sufficient frequency to assure its maintenance. In unoccupied premises the traps should be emptied of water and refilled with kerosene oil or other material which evaporates slowly. Unfortunately, vent pipes serve to increase the rate of evaporation from traps as they furnish a constantly changing supply of fresh air to the surface of the water in the trap.

Plumbing codes Bathtub Plumbing

The installation of improper plumbing may affect the health of the occupants of the building and create a focal centre of disease which will have an undesirable effect upon the public health. Such a situation is of sufficient interest to the public to require the regulation of plumbing by law. The police power of the state is invoked and upon this principle is based the right of the government to regulate the minute details of plumbing by means of plumbing codes. There are very few cities in the United States which do not have some sort of plumbing code and an inspector to enforce its provisions.

The aim of the plumbing code should be to cover every possible contingency which may arise in the installation of plumbing. A complete plumbing code is a lengthy document. Its enforcement is legal under the police power of the state and any builder should assure himself that his plans are in accordance with the requirements of the code. It must be admitted, unfortunately, that all plumbing codes are not perfect and that requirements are sometimes made which are unreasonable, unjustified, and harmful. When, in the comparison of two codes, it is found that one stipulates that a certain thing shall be done and the other positively prohibits it, one or the other must be wrong.

Plumbing codes are being improved, and during the past few years much attention has been given to their improvement. The credit for this situation can be given to Herbert Hoover, Secretary of the U. S. Department of Commerce, because of the preparation, under his direction, of the “Recommended Minimum Requirements for Plumbing in Dwellings and Similar Buildings,” hereinafter known as the Hoover Report. This contains a proposed standard plumbing code.